These are all interventions that aim to know and strengthen the characteristics and mental, emotional and behavioural abilities in order to be more effective, efficient and aware ("empowerment"), in particular:
Health psychology is concerned with the promotion and maintenance of health, and in particular with the development and maintenance of psychological and motivational attitudes that promote healthy lifestyles.
Today, chronic illnesses such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes, on the one hand, and accidents, particularly road accidents, on the other, have increased enormously, together with the difficulty of medicine, it has become increasingly evident that psychological behavioral factors play an important role in the onset, evolution and management of these diseases.
In outlining the relevance of these factors, it may be useful to distinguish three broad categories: habits or lifestyles; reactions to disease and the role of a patient; direct psychophysiological effects.
The extraordinary development of neuroscience has led to the discovery of a series of mechanisms that explain how psychologically relevant events translate into physiological changes harmful to health and into real illnesses: the brain, with its links to the endocrine system on the one hand and the immune system on the other, increasingly appears to be an obligatory point of reference for understanding the body in its state of illness and health.